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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 38  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-20

Stepped care model for developing pathways of screening, referral, and brief intervention for depression in pregnancy: A mixed-method study from development phase


1 Department of Psychiatry, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, B.K.L. Walawalkar Rural Medical College, Sawarda, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
4 Department of Psychiatry, Dharwad Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India
5 Department of Psychiatry, Health Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
6 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Pracheth Raghuveer
Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Light House Hill Road, Mangalore - 575 001, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_372_21

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Background: Depression in pregnancy affects nearly one in five women in low- and middle-income countries and is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. Burden of morbidity is high, but specialized mental health resources are meager. Effective low intensity psychosocial interventions hold promise to fill the treatment gap for maternal depression. In this paper, we aim to describe the process of development of a stepped care model incorporating screening, providing brief intervention, and referral pathways developed for managing depression in pregnancy in antenatal care health facilities in India. Methodology: Using complex intervention development and evaluation method of Medical Research Council, United Kingdom, we searched evidence-based strategies from preexisting manuals, conducted formative research for need assessment and stakeholder engagement, and developed the intervention following an expert review panel. We conducted pilot testing to assess the feasibility and acceptability of intervention supplemented by three focused group discussions. Results: Manual review identified psychoeducation, empathetic listening, behavior activation, and supportive counseling as important elements. Need assessment revealed huge gap in perinatal mental health knowledge. Nearly 92% of total 272 perinatal women had poor awareness and 35%–70% of total 62 health-care providers had poor knowledge. In qualitative interview, women reported depressive symptoms as a normal part of pregnancy and had poor help seeking, behavior symptoms of depression were more prominent. A stepped care algorithm was developed for screening all expectant mothers in each trimester for depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Women with PHQ-9 score >19 or reporting self-harm ideation were urgently referred to psychiatrist. Women with PHQ-9 score 5–19 were given brief intervention for depression in pregnancy intervention by antenatal nurse. The intervention developed consists of three sessions of psychoeducation, relaxation exercise, and mental health promotion, each lasting 20 min and at gap of 2 weeks each. Service providers and mothers reported good acceptability of psychosocial intervention and reported satisfaction with content and delivery of intervention. Conclusion: Low intensity brief psychosocial interventions can be adapted for implementation if relevant stakeholders are engaged at each step right from development of such as screening, intervention pathway to delivery, and effectiveness study.


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