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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2020| July-September  | Volume 36 | Issue 3  
    Online since September 28, 2020

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Anxiety as a predictor of gaming disorder among young adults
Manoj Kumar Sharma, Nitin Anand, P Marimuthu, N Suma, Keshava D Murthy, Pranjali Chakraborty Thakur, Priya Singh, SJ Ajith, Nisha John, Ishita Mondal, Ankita Biswas, R Archana, Akash Vishwakarma, Ashwini Tadpatrikar, Shikha Ahuja
July-September 2020, 36(3):254-257
Background: Psychological morbidities have been found to be associated with gaming disorder. Objective: The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship of gaming disorder with affective states of depression, stress, and anxiety. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 403 males in the age range of 18–25 years. The mean age was 21 years. These young adults were approached for the administration of study tools from colleges and community of urban areas of Bengaluru. Inverse binomial sampling was used to collect the sample. The Internet Gaming Disorder Scale Short-Form and Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 were administered. Results: Stepwise regression analysis indicated that anxiety significantly contributed to gaming disorder. Depression and stress did not contribute significantly toward gaming disorder. Conclusions: This study implies the need for intervention of anxiety in the context of gaming disorder and the design of appropriate interventions.
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Prevalence and risk factors of internet addiction among the students of Banaras Hindu University
Manushi Srivastava, Avadhesh Kumar, Shweta Jaiswal
July-September 2020, 36(3):191-195
Introduction: There is enormous growth of Internet use in the last few decades, and it has a vast impact on people's relationship and behavior. Internet use by college students has been associated with frequent communication among friends and family members, but it has minimized the face-to-face interaction. Internet addiction does not imply as an intoxicant; it has been considered as an impulse. Internet addiction among students adversely affects their mental, physical, and social health. Objective: The aim of the study is to find the patterns of Internet use and prevalence and risk factors of Internet addiction among students. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on students studying at Banaras Hindu University (BHU). A total of 133 respondents (77 males and 56 females) were selected for the study by simple random sampling technique. Internet Addiction Test developed by K. Young and a semi-structured interview schedule were used for data collection. Results: The results of the study revealed that out of the 133 students, approximately half of the respondents (53.2%) belong to the 22–25 years' age group and less than half of the respondents (42.9%) were studying postgraduation. One-third of the students (33.8%) belongs to humanities and social sciences. It was found that 58.3% of students were having mild addiction and 20% of students suffer from moderate addiction of the Internet. Nearly one-third of the respondents (41.4%) were facing the problem of headache because of Internet usage. In this study, more than half of the study participants (56.3%) were using the Internet during night, and nearly, one-third of the respondents (42.1%) were using the Internet only for chatting. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of Internet addiction is less in the BHU, approximately one-fifth of the students were suffering with this. To conclude, it can be said that the Internet will be useful keeping in mind that excess of anything is dangerous.
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Psychological stress in Northeast Indian students pursuing their higher studies in Mangalore
Prajna D'silva, Princy Louis Palatty, Ovine D'souza, Supreeth Kakkaje Chandran, Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga
July-September 2020, 36(3):214-220
Objectives: Reports from around the world have conclusively shown that young adults who relocate to different places to pursue higher studies undergo psychological stress. For the first time, an attempt is made at understanding the psychological stress in Northeast Indian students who have relocated to Mangalore. As a parallel comparator, psychological stress in age-matched nonlocal Karnataka students living in the same hostel was also ascertained. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and was conducted in the first-year graduate students 3 weeks after the start of the college. The generalized anxiety, perceived stress, and fatigue were ascertained using the standard questionnaires. In addition to this, an investigator designed coping skills and remedial suggestion questionnaire was also provided to ascertain the opinion of the student volunteers. Results: The results indicate that when compared to the controls, the generalized anxiety, perceived stress, and fatigue were high in the Northeast students (P = 0.037–0.001). With regard to the coping skills, a significant difference (P = 0.009) was seen with regard to habits on smoking and alcohol consumption in the Northeast students. Conclusions: As far as the authors are aware of this, it is the first study that attempts at understanding the psychological stress on Northeast Indian students belonging to a different ecocultural background. Further studies are warranted on understanding on how it can be mitigated.
  2 1,637 55
Portrayal of mental health in the newspapers from Chennai: A cross-sectional survey
Antra K Chandan, Upasana Sridhar, Sanjana G Jain, CS Ramalakshmi, Subhashini Gopal, Vijaya Raghavan
July-September 2020, 36(3):258-261
Background: Newspapers are the most widely used mode for daily news and information. However, studies have shown that mental health continues to be portrayed in a negative light in the newspapers, and various factors could lead to this poor reporting of mental health. Thus, the aim of this study was to understand how mental health news and information are portrayed in the leading print newspapers of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Four top newspapers, three in English and one in the vernacular language (Tamil), were selected. The articles related to mental health were identified, collected, synthesized, and analyzed for the content and communication methods. Appropriate qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis was used. Results: Most of the articles were on positive mental health, followed by addiction. Less number of articles were on depression. The vernacular papers were found to be using a more dramatic linguistic approach while writing their news reports. The suicide helpline number was not present in most articles in both the English and vernacular newspapers. The media professionals were focusing more on the promotion/prevention approach of mental health with little emphasis on mental illness. Conclusion: As the current trend is toward a more preventative approach, an increasing number of articles on positive psychology are published in the newspapers. Prescribed guidelines for reporting suicide were also not followed, predominantly in the vernacular papers. This highlights the need for dissemination and training on existing guidelines for better reporting of mental health among journalists.
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Celebrity suicide: A case for collaboration between media and mental health professionals
Thanapal Sivakumar, Hitesh Khurana
July-September 2020, 36(3):169-171
  1 2,820 164
Clozapine prescribing pattern in a 10-year-old community psychiatry clinic in South India
NA Uvais, VS Sreeraj
July-September 2020, 36(3):262-263
  1 1,171 92
Stigma for mental disorders among the elderly population in a rural setting
Aseem Mehra, Himanshu Singla, Sandeep Grover, Ajit Avasthi
July-September 2020, 36(3):184-190
Aim: The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of stigma for mental disorders among the older adults (aged ≥60 years) from a rural background visiting a general outpatient's clinic at the civil hospital as an attendant of patients. The secondary objective of the study was to assess the correlation of stigma with the sociodemographic profile and family history of mental illness. Methodology: One hundred and four older adults (aged ≥60 years) from a rural background visiting a general outpatient's clinic at the civil hospital as an attendant of patients with physical illnesses were evaluated on Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) Scale. Results: About three-fifths of the participants (59.6%) were females. About one-third (32.7%) of the study participants had a family history of mental illness. On CAMI Scale, the highest score was obtained in the domain of benevolence (BE), followed by authoritarian, community mental health ideology (CMHI), and social restrictiveness (SR). Those with a family history of mental illness and from middle socioeconomic status scored significantly higher on the SR domain of CAMI. Level of education had a significant positive correlation with the scores in the domains of BE, SR, and CMHI. Age had a significant negative correlation with the SR domain score. Conclusions: Elderly in a rural setting, in general, have a positive attitude toward mental illness and have a lower level of stigma associated with mental illnesses. Certain demographic and clinical variables such as middle socioeconomic status, low level of education, and presence of mental illness are associated with stigma.
  1 2,640 215
Use of the life grid in qualitative data collection with adolescents in India: Researcher reflections
Divya Ballal, Janardhana Navaneetham, Prabha Chandra
July-September 2020, 36(3):172-179
Literature describing methodologies for qualitative research with children and young people suggests that traditional data collection methods can be strengthened through the use of creative and task-based methods. This article discusses the use of a task-based method called the life grid, in the Indian context, in a study exploring the experiences of adolescent children of parents with mental illness. A life grid was formulated for use in a study with 28 adolescents, aged 15–19 years, to explore their experiences of living with a parent with mental illness. The process of the interviews and researcher reflections were noted down as field notes. The life grid was useful in the majority of the interviews and facilitated the collection of rich qualitative data. It provided a holistic perspective of the participants' lives, helped establish rapport and set the pace, provided structure, and served as a visual and temporal guide for the interviews. However, the use of the life grid was also time-consuming. It was less engaging for participants who were not comfortable with writing or reading, and posed particular challenges in the diverse linguistic context of India. Despite its limitations, the life grid can be said to be appropriate and useful in qualitative research with adolescents in India. The article contributes to ongoing discussions over culturally relevant methodologies and issues among child and adolescent researchers in India.
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Envisaging WHO's multi-sectoral approach for the prevention of suicide
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
July-September 2020, 36(3):264-265
  - 1,091 113
Evaluation of center for epidemiological studies depression scale-10 (Malayalam Shorter Version) for depression among people living with HIV/AIDS
Sharanabasappa Algoodkar, PP Rejani, Ajithkumar Kidangazhiathmana, KS Shaji
July-September 2020, 36(3):180-183
Background: Depression and other neuropsychiatric illnesses are common in people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWHIV) because of its physical and mental health consequences. In this study, depression status has been evaluated and validated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D-10) Malayalam shorter version. Objective: The objective of the study was to study the outcome of CES-D-10 (Malayalam shorter version) in the screening of depression in PLWHIV and to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 100 PLWHIV patients was conducted at the antiretroviral treatment (ART) Centre, Government Medical College Chest Hospital, Thrissur, Kerala. Patients meeting the study criteria were subjected to a self-reported questionnaire which includes CES-D-10 with a cutoff score of 4. The depressive symptoms were evaluated using the International Classification of Diseases-10th version classification of mental and behavioral disorders. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), and false-positive rate (FPR) and false-negative rate (FNR) were calculated to assess the performance of the CES-D-10 Malayalam version. Further, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the criterion validity. Results: In this study, for a cutoff score of 4 and above, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, FPR, and FNR were found to be 86.66%, 91.43%, 81.25%, 94.12%, 8.57%, and 13.3%, respectively. The ROC curve was significant, with an area of 0.916. Conclusions: Thus, the 10-item shorter version of CES-D-10 (Malayalam shorter version) is a valuable tool for screening depressive symptoms among the PLWHIV.
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Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with treatment lag in substance use disorders
Ajeet Sidana, Sai Prashant Bansal
July-September 2020, 36(3):221-224
Introduction: Substance use disorder (SUD) has plagued the society. However, owing to late treatment seeking, this menace is ever growing. The reasons for treatment lag and variables responsible for the same would be of paramount importance in nipping this evil early. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the sociodemographic and clinical variables of treatment lag in SUD. Materials and Methods: Patients of SUDs who sought treatment for the first time from an outpatient clinic were recruited in the study. Results: A total of 172 patients with SUDs were included in the study. The mean duration of treatment lag in SUD came out to be 102 months. Age at first use, duration of regular use, and drug-related problems were significantly associated with treatment lag. Conclusion: The study concludes that treatment lag is significantly associated with age of a patient at first use, duration of regular use, and drug-related problems experienced by the patient.
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Gender differences in individuals with suicide attempt from a general hospital setting in Bengaluru, India
Priya Sreedaran, N Jayasudha, Shakuntala Murty, Johnson Pradeep Ruben
July-September 2020, 36(3):225-229
Objective: Gender-related risk factors in individuals with suicide attempts vary according to the region in India. These gender-related factors have implications in determining the nature of psychiatric treatment in such individuals. This study reports on gender differences in individuals with recent suicide attempts evaluated by the Assertive Management of Attempted Suicide (AMAS) service in a general hospital setting in Bengaluru, India. Subjects and Methods: The authors extracted data pertaining to the demographic and illness details from 494 case records from January 2016 to December 2017. Results: Women were more likely to be married and homemakers, whereas men were more likely to be farmers, unemployed, and single. Women were more likely to overdose on the prescription drugs and be diagnosed with depression. Men were more significantly likely to be diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder (P < 0.019, odds ratio: 1.874, confidence interval at 95% interval: 1.109–3.169). Conclusions: There are definite gender-related differences with respect to marital status, occupation, mode of suicide attempt, and psychiatric diagnosis as noted in the AMAS. A focus on psychiatric diagnostic assessment without understanding other associated sociodemographic variables could lead to inadequate mental health treatment in individuals without a psychiatric diagnosis. Mental health interventions in all individuals with a suicide attempt should be formulated taking into account specific gender-related variables.
  - 1,451 122
Selfie-taking behavior: Personality factors, self-esteem, and interpersonal closeness in college-going students in a Metropolitan City
Nitisha Verma, Kalpana D Pawar, Mansi Somaiya, Jahnavi Kedare, Fiona Mehta, Abhilasha Tyagi, Kanak Gillurkar
July-September 2020, 36(3):230-235
Background: Taking selfies is an emerging trend. It is common in college-going adolescents and young adults. It has been proposed to be an addiction or obsession. Researchers have linked it with personality and self-esteem. It has also been thought of as a way of filling gaps in relationship. Few studies have looked at selfie-taking behavior and factors mediating it; hence, this study was planned. Objectives: This study aimed to understand selfie-taking behavior, its prevalence and association with personality factors, self-esteem, and interpersonal closeness in college-going students. Materials and Methods: Students 18–25 years old, studying in graduation, able to understand English, and willing to give informed consent were included in this cross-sectional study. Seven hundred and three students from four colleges participated in the study. Participants were assessed using a self-designed face validated questionnaire to assess selfie-taking behavior, Ten-Item Personality Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Perceived Interpersonal Closeness Scale. Selfie-taking behavior was defined as taking two or more selfies in a day. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and independent t-test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: The prevalence of selfie-taking behavior was 28.7%. Students having selfie-taking behavior tended to be extroverts. There was no significant difference on other domains. Selfie-taking behavior had interfered with social and academic performance of students. Conclusion: Taking selfies may become a cause of concern when a person is unable to control it and the associated negative consequences. This study sensitizes people to be vigilant about it and also invites the attention of researchers to explore it further.
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Brewing caregiver burden: Indian insights into alcohol use disorder
Kranti S Kadam, Vishnu B Unnithan, Mangesh R Mane, Amey Y Angane
July-September 2020, 36(3):236-242
Introduction: Alcohol dependence is a growing problem in India. A substance dependent person in the family affects almost all aspects of family life. There is a surprising scarcity of studies on impact of alcohol dependence on caregivers. The study assessed the sociodemographic profile of primary caregivers of patients diagnosed with alcohol use disorder as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria by consultant psychiatrists and the severity of caregiver burden in them. The study further examined the association between various variables of sociodemographic factors, alcohol usage, and caregiver burden. Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at a de-addiction center attached to a tertiary hospital in Mumbai. Primary caregivers of 80 patients were recruited for this study. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and caregiver burden scale. Sociodemographic profile and variables of alcohol usage were associated and correlated with caregiver burden using contingency tables and linear regression analysis. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of moderate-to-severe caregiver burden was obtained as 78.75% among the primary caregivers. There was a positive correlation between caregiver burden and the quantity of alcohol consumed, monthly alcohol expenditure, and years of marriage. The association between caregiver burden and various sociodemographic variables were not found to be statistically significant. Conclusions and Implications: There is the prevalence of moderate-to-severe caregiver burden among primary caregivers of patients of alcohol use disorder. Addressing the quantity of alcohol and expenditure incurred on alcohol consumption with focus on caregiver psychoeducation will have significant implications in the rehabilitation of patients with alcohol use disorder.
  - 2,310 210
A pilot trial of a manualized psychoeducation module for parents of children with autism with intellectual disability and intellectual disability alone
Nupur Kumari, Triptish Bhatia, Satabdi Chakraborty, Anuradha Balsavar, Smita N Deshpande
July-September 2020, 36(3):243-253
Objectives: Children with autism with/without intellectual disability (ID) and ID alone require regular interventions. Psychoeducation (PE) can empower parents with intervention strategies. The aim of this study was to develop the test efficacy of a simple, short manualized PE module for parents of children with autism with/without comorbid ID and for ID alone. We focused on both autism and ID (A-ID) because we felt that both the groups could benefit from this module. Methods: A special module for PE was developed after literature review, inputs from a study group, and discussion with experts. Parents attended eight fortnightly intervention sessions. Children were assessed on the Developmental Screening Test, Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA), and the Behavioral Assessment Scale for Indian Children with Mental Retardation (BASIC-MR) before starting and 1 month after completing PE. Results: Consenting parent of parents/of 16 children with A-ID and 14 with ID completed sessions with pre- and postassessment. There was a significant improvement in the majority of domains of ISAA and BASIC-MR Part B in children with both conditions. Conclusions: PE has a wide scope for use across various developmental disorders. The module developed is promising for a wide variety of field workers.
  - 2,188 191
Demand–Control–Support Questionnaire: Psychometric characteristics and measurement invariance across gender and academic ranks among Nigerian University teachers
Olutayo Aloba, Tolulope Opakunle, Addah Tamuno
July-September 2020, 36(3):196-202
Background: No occupational stress-related instrument has been psychometrically examined among Nigerian university teachers. Aim: This study examined the 17-item Demand–Control–Support Questionnaire (DCSQ-17) in terms of factor structure, reliability, validity, and measurement invariance across gender and academic ranks among Nigerian university teachers (n = 597) from a federal institution in Southwestern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: They completed the DCSQ-17, in addition to the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). Results: The original DCSQ-17 three-dimensional model (demands, control, and support) was affirmed with confirmatory factor analysis. There was evidence to support the configural, metric, and scalar invariances across genders and academic ranks. The reliability coefficients (McDonald's omega) of the subscales were satisfactory. Criterion validity was supported through correlational analyses with the MBI and ZSAS. Conclusion: The DCSQ-17 is useful as a stress evaluation instrument among Nigerian university teachers. Further studies are needed to confirm the psychometric properties among other Nigerian occupational groups.
  - 3,478 244
Assessment of academic stress and its correlation with self-efficacy and coping style among undergraduate medical students
Poornima Chandraprakash, Vedalaveni Chowdappa Suresh, Anjana Krishna Kumar, C R. Wilma Delphine Silvia
July-September 2020, 36(3):203-207
Background: Academic stress is one of the important issues associated with education, especially medical education due to the demanding curriculum. Coping mechanisms and student's self-belief that they can cope with academic pressures help in managing stress, but the effectiveness of such methods is unclear. The present study attempted to understand the correlation of academic stress, coping mechanism, and student self-efficacy. Subjects and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, in which universal sampling was done among 2nd- and 3rd-year undergraduate medical students, among them 246 students consented to participate in the study. Out of which, 57.7% were 2nd-year students and 42.3% were 3rd-year students. The Academic Stress Inventory, Brief COPE, and Self-Efficacy Scales were used to collect data which were analyzed statistically. Results: The mean age of the students was 20.03 ± 1.01 years, among which 59.8% were females and 40.2% were males. The most common source of academic stress was stress from teachers, as reported by male (28.8 ± 6.35) and female students (28.8 ± 5.64). Students tried to manage stress by planning their activities in advance, and female students (5.59 ± 1.38) practiced this more frequently than males (5.22 ± 1.58) and this was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Male and female students were equally self-efficacious. A weak but significant correlation was found between coping styles and stress (r = 0.405; P < 0.05) and between self-efficacy and stress (r = 0.133; P < 0.05). Conclusion: The major source of academic stress was stress from teachers. Academic stress was more among female students. However, neither the coping styles nor students' self-efficacy had any role in reducing the academic stress experienced by medical students.
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A cross-sectional study to assess disability and internalized stigma among treatment-seeking individuals with opioid use disorders
Shabir Ahmad Dar, Zaid Ahmad Wani, Naziya Fayaz Baba, Junaid Nabi, Aaliya Khanam
July-September 2020, 36(3):208-213
Background: India being located between the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle is vulnerable to being both a destination and transit route for opioids, leading to significant clinical and public health burden. This study aimed to assess the disability and internalized stigma among opioid use disorder (OUD) patients. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive study conducted in the drug de-addiction center of a tertiary care medical college and hospital in North India in patients with OUDs. Disability among patients with OUDs was measured using the Indian Disability Evaluation and Assessment scale (IDEAS), while stigma was measured using the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale. Results: Among 100 patients with OUD, maximum impairment noted was in interpersonal relationships followed by the work domain. However, the least affected was the self-care domain. The mean total score of internalized stigma was 4.31 ± 0.39. There was a statistically significant correlation between demographic variables with injection drug use and high-risk behavior (r = 0.92, P < 0.01, and 0.883, P < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: Disability assessment using IDEAS among patients with OUD shows a significant impairment across various domains. The highest degree of disability was found in the interpersonal relationships followed by the work domain. Targeting internalized stigma in patients with OUD can contribute toward reducing the disability associated with it.
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